Local weather Change

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Scientists count on local weather change to trigger irreparable harm to the world, together with from the rising prevalence of record-breaking natural disasters just like the wildfires and hurricanes that ravaged the nation this summer time. One research revealed within the peer-reviewed scientific journal Nature discovered that failing to sufficiently scale back greenhouse gases may cost the global economy as a lot as $792 trillion by the top of the century. 

Biden has repeatedly stated he believes within the menace local weather change poses, and has stated he’ll: 

  • Transition the U.S. right into a 100% clear power economic system with a carbon-free energy sector by 2035 and net-zero emissions by 2050 
  • Make a $2 trillion funding in sustainable infrastructure and a clear power economic system, together with offering “each American metropolis with 100,000 or extra residents with high-quality, zero-emissions public transportation choices” and upgrading 4 million business buildings to make them extra power environment friendly
  • Rejoin the Paris Local weather Settlement, which requires nations to set their very own targets for lowering carbon emissions
  • Require public corporations to disclose the climate risks and greenhouse gasoline emissions of their operations
  • Biden has additionally stated he won’t ban fracking, although he would ban new fracking on federal lands

Mr. Trump, who has prompt scientists don’t understand climate change, has rolled again or weakened Obama-era environmental protections. His marketing campaign web site doesn’t embrace any second-term plans to fight local weather change. Here is a few of what he has completed: 

  • Expanded offshore oil and gasoline drilling, and labored to broaden fossil gas manufacturing within the U.S. However roughly two months earlier than Election Day, he signed an government order banning offshore drilling for 10 years alongside Florida’s Gulf coast and the Atlantic coasts of Florida, Georgia and South Carolina
  • Rolled again Obama-era local weather protections, together with an EPA rule that pushed coal crops to scale back emissions of mercury and different human well being hazards and had stricter guidelines about soot, heavy metals and poisonous gasses
  • Eased air and water air pollution penalties in opposition to corporations throughout the COVID-19 pandemic  
  • Started withdrawing the U.S. from the Paris climate agreement
  • Signed an government order “establishing the One Trillion Trees Interagency Council” to supervise the objective of defending and restoring one trillion timber by 2030
  • Signed the Save Our Seas Act of 2018, which reauthorized the Nationwide Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Marine Particles Program to obtain $10 million a yr by 2022 and inspired political leaders to assist clear up oceans
  • Signed the Great American Outdoors Act, which makes use of royalties from offshore oil and gasoline drilling to fund the Land and Water Conservation Fund and makes use of revenues from power growth to offer as much as $1.9 million a yr for 5 years to take care of nationwide parks, forests, wildlife refuges, recreation areas and American Indian colleges
  • Put $38 billion towards the EPA’s “clear water infrastructure” mission
 

Abortion

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The dying of Supreme Court docket Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg this summer time threw the way forward for authorized abortion entry within the U.S. into query. Mr. Trump has nominated federal decide Amy Coney Barrett, who has voted to support restrictions on abortion in two circumstances as a federal decide, to fill Ginsburg’s seat. 

Biden, who has stated he is personally in opposition to abortion, has stated he refuses “to impose my religious beliefs on other people” and has pledged to make Roe v. Wade “the law of the land.” Biden has stated he helps what is printed in Roe v. Wade — that states can not prohibit abortion till the third trimester of being pregnant, and may by no means prohibit an abortion to save lots of the life or well being of the affected person.

Biden plans to:

  • Go legislation that codifies Roe v. Wade into regulation, which might require Senate approval
  • Repeal the Hyde Modification, which bans federal funding of abortion aside from circumstances of rape, incest or when the being pregnant endangers the affected person’s life
  • Mandate that states cannot refuse Medicaid funding for Deliberate Parenthood and different suppliers, and permit such organizations to obtain Title X funding 
  • Rescind the Mexico Metropolis Coverage, which prevents nongovernmental organizations from receiving federal funds in the event that they talk about abortion as a household planning choice or present the process
  • Restore the Inexpensive Care Act mandate that strictly restricted the organizations that would refuse to offer their staff medical health insurance that coated contraceptives  
  • “Do the whole lot” to finish abortion restrictions mandated by states, together with parental notification necessities, necessary ready intervals and ultrasound necessities

Mr. Trump has said he is “pro-life” with exceptions for rape, incest and saving the lifetime of the affected person, and pledged in 2016 to solely nominate “pro-life” judges to the Supreme Court docket. The Trump re-election marketing campaign web site doesn’t provide any plans on abortion, however Mr. Trump has completed the next: 

  • Excluded clinics the place “abortion is a technique of household planning” from receiving Title X funding, which was designed to offer inexpensive reproductive care to low-income ladies 
  • Reinstated the Mexico City Policy
 

Police and felony justice reform

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From the killings of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor to calls to defund the police, felony justice reform has been a key problem in 2020.  

Whereas Biden has resisted calls from the left to defund police, he has outlined a plan for systemic felony justice reform that features the next: 

  • Create a $20 billion aggressive grant program targeted on incarceration prevention designed to incentivize states to finish necessary minimal sentencing and take different steps to scale back incarceration charges
  • Eradicate the dying penalty on the federal degree and incentivize states to comply with go well with 
  • Finish solitary confinement
  • Fund initiatives to companion police departments with psychological well being and substance use dysfunction specialists, social employees and incapacity advocates
  • Assist laws that can remove necessary minimal sentences on the federal degree
  • Decriminalize hashish and routinely expunge prior convictions
  • Mandate that these dealing with costs for drug use alone be despatched to therapy as an alternative of jail on the federal degree, and incentivize states to comply with go well with
  • Finish money bail and finish incarceration for the shortcoming to pay fines and charges
  • Finish the federal use of personal prisons
  • Make investments $1 billion per yr in reforming the juvenile justice system 

Mr. Trump has largely touted “regulation and order” all through his marketing campaign, and has stated he’ll:

  • Absolutely fund and rent extra regulation enforcement officers
  • Improve felony penalties for assaults on regulation enforcement officers and “bring violent extremist groups like ANTIFA to justice”
  • Maintain folks in jail till trial and “finish cashless bail,” which refers to some states that don’t situation an individual’s launch from jail on whether or not they will pay bail

Throughout his time period, he has: 

  • Signed the First Step Act, which supplies judges extra discretion after they sentence some drug offenders, boosts prisoner rehabilitation efforts, and reduces life sentences for some drug offenders with three convictions
  • Introduced greater than $98 million in funding for states, cities and tribal nations to rent 802 full-time officers
  • Provided state and local law enforcement with surplus navy gear, together with armored automobiles
  • Despatched federal regulation enforcement to cities experiencing racial injustice protests following the dying of George Floyd
  • Signed an executive order to create a nationwide police misconduct database, with Division of Justice grant funding solely going to companies that submit the required info to the database. The order additionally duties the DOJ and Well being and Human Providers to create pointers for applications that might ship social employees, together with police, to circumstances associated to psychological well being, homelessness or drug habit
  • Reversed an Obama-era directive to phase out private prisons
 

Taxes and the economic system

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The U.S. tax system has been described as an “engine of inequality.” At present, the highest 0.1% of the inhabitants owns 20% of U.S. wealth, specialists say, and with out modifications to the tax system, that possession may enhance as much as 40%. 

Biden has stated he won’t increase taxes for individuals who make below $400,000 a yr and can present tax cuts for the center class. He has additionally stated he “would require firms and the wealthiest Individuals to lastly pay their fair share.” 

Biden stated he’ll: 

  • Elevate the company tax charge from 21% to twenty-eight%
  • Elevate the highest particular person revenue tax charge to 39.6%
  • Improve the Little one Tax Credit score to $3,000 per youngster for youngsters ages 6 to 17, and $3,600 for youngsters below 6. He additionally plans to make the credit score totally refundable and provides households the choice to obtain month-to-month funds
  • Provide as much as $8,000 in tax credit to assist low-income and middle-class households pay for youngster care
  • Prolong COVID crisis unemployment insurance
  • Make investments $400 billion of federal cash in merchandise made by American employees
  • Allocate $10 billion to state and native enterprise capital applications, and prioritize enterprise house owners who create jobs and progress in lower-income city, tribal, and rural areas
  • Improve federal funding for non-profit incubators and innovation hubs and prioritize these serving folks of coloration
  • Create 1 million new auto business jobs
  • Enact laws to impose penalties on corporations and to carry firm executives personally liable after they intrude with employees’ organizing efforts
  • Repeal the Taft-Hartley provisions that enable states to impose “proper to work” legal guidelines, which permit employees to decide on to not pay dues to a union that represents them

Mr. Trump has stated since his preliminary run for workplace that he’ll assist the center class by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. However the act lower taxes for U.S. firms and a number of the wealthiest households while providing fewer benefits to the center class. An evaluation discovered it resulted within the 400 richest families within the nation paying a decrease general tax charge than the center class. 

In his second term, Mr. Trump stated he’ll: 

  • Reduce taxes to “enhance take-home pay and hold jobs in America”
  • Create “Made in America” tax credit
  • Create tax credit for corporations that “convey again jobs from China”
  • Create 10 million jobs in 10 months
  • Create 1 million small companies
  • Enable pharmaceutical and robotics corporations to totally deduct bills in the event that they “convey again their manufacturing” to the U.S. 
  • Present no federal contracts to corporations that outsource to China

Throughout his tenure, Mr. Trump has:

  • Handed the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, which partly lowered the company tax charge from 35% to 21%. The company tax lower is projected to decrease tax revenues by $2 trillion over a decade
  • Doubled the property tax ground, which some name the “dying tax,” to $11.18 million per taxpayer. In consequence, solely about 2,000 estates per yr within the U.S. are anticipated to be responsible for federal property tax. The transfer is prone to save Mr. Trump’s family tens of thousands and thousands of {dollars}
  • Created a payroll tax “holiday” that enables corporations to delay accumulating payroll taxes in order that staff can defer having taxes taken out of their paychecks till 2021, at which level staff must pay again the quantity deferred. There is no such thing as a proof that any main retailers have but taken benefit of the vacation
  • Prolonged additional advantages for unemployed employees in September, offering $400 per week — down from the $600 that had beforehand been offered. The funds have been diverted from the FEMA emergency fund, and have been solely projected to final six weeks at most

 

Coronavirus

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COVID-19 has killed greater than 220,000 folks within the U.S., and contaminated thousands and thousands extra. Consultants have stated carrying masks and social distancing may drastically scale back transmission and dying charges. 

Biden has closely criticized the Trump administration’s response, and has stated his plans for addressing COVID-19 are targeted on testing and tracing, a adequate private protecting gear provide, therapies and vaccines, safely and successfully reopening communities, and defending those that are most at-risk for contracting the virus.

Biden has stated he’ll:

  • Make coronavirus assessments free for all Individuals, and double the variety of drive-thru testing websites
  • Create real-time dashboards that observe COVID-19 hospital admissions and provide chain info, together with the supply, allocation and transport of important gear and PPE
  • Rent at the least 100,000 contact tracers
  • Work with governors and mayors to mandate that folks wear masks when they’re with folks outdoors their family 
  • Restore the White Home Nationwide Safety Council Directorate for World Well being Safety and Biodefense. The Trump administration eradicated the group in 2018, however a number of the group’s members have been absorbed into pandemic response positions inside the Nationwide Safety Council, Reuters reported
  • Rejoin the World Well being Group

Whereas the Trump administration took numerous actions to cease the unfold of the coronavirus, Mr. Trump has repeatedly downplayed the potential affect of COVID-19. In September, simply days earlier than he introduced he had been recognized with COVID-19 himself, Mr. Trump informed rally-goers in Ohio that coronavirus “affects virtually nobody.”

In response to his marketing campaign, Mr. Trump’s second-term plans embrace: 

  • Develop and distribute “100 million doses” of a vaccine in 2020 by Operation Warp Pace 
  • Make Regeneron’s antibody cocktail and different drug therapeutics free and accessible to all Individuals
  • Make vital medicines and provides for U.S. well being care employees
  • Refill stockpiles and put together for any future pandemics
  • “Return to regular” in 2021

Right here is how the Trump administration dealt with the pandemic: 

  • Issued travel restrictions, together with screening passengers flying to the U.S. from China in January and banning passengers from greater than two dozen European nations in March
  • Created the Coronavirus Process Pressure on the finish of January and declared a national emergency in March
  • Signed the CARES Act to broaden unemployment insurance coverage and supply stimulus checks to qualifying people, however called off negotiations for a second bill that might have offered extra stimulus checks, restored $600 in additional weekly jobless advantages and funded schooling and youngster care
  • Permitted the Paycheck Protection Program, which allotted $659 billion to offer loans to small companies
  • Dedicated greater than $1 billion to Operation Warp Speed, an initiative to expedite the event of a coronavirus vaccine and make thousands and thousands of doses accessible by the top of the yr 
  • Submitted a discover of withdrawal from the World Well being Group, which is able to go into impact July 6, 2021
 

Weapons

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There have been more mass shootings within the U.S. final yr than there have been days within the yr, in accordance with analysis group Gun Violence Archive. The violence has prompted nationwide requires reform.

Biden, who has stated he’s a gun owner himself, has pushed for thorough gun reform that closes buying and licensing loopholes. He has additionally pushed for there to be stricter entry to weapons and tighter monitoring of the place weapons, ammunition and equipment go.

Listed below are the plans Biden has listed on his marketing campaign web site: 

  • Ban the manufacture of assault weapons and high-capacity magazines, and institute a program to purchase them again 
  • Require background checks for almost all gun gross sales, together with these bought on-line, at gun exhibits and thru different means with out a federal vendor’s license
  • Finish on-line firearm and ammunition gross sales, and incentivize states and native governments to require gun licenses and undertake pink flag legal guidelines, which permit regulation enforcement to quickly confiscate firearms from people who find themselves decided to be a danger to themselves or others 
  • Mandate that the FBI create a course of in order that state and native regulation enforcement is shortly made conscious of people that fail gun buy background checks
  • Create a $900 million, eight-year initiative to fund evidence-based interventions in 20 cities with the best variety of homicides and 20 cities with the best variety of homicides per capita
  • Prohibit states from utilizing federal cash to arm or prepare educators to make use of firearms 

Mr. Trump has repeatedly touted his assist for the Second Modification. However the president did enact a gun reform coverage when he banned bump shares, a product that makes it simpler to fireside bullets extra shortly. Here’s what he has completed all through his presidency:  

  • Opposed Home invoice H.R.8, which might have established background test necessities for firearm transfers between unlicensed people, saying it will “impose burdensome necessities on sure firearm transactions” 
  • Opposed Home invoice H.R. 1112, which might have prolonged the time federal authorities have to finish background checks for gun gross sales, saying it will “unduly impose burdensome delays on people in search of to buy a firearm”
  • Reversed a 2007 rule that allowed the Social Safety Administration to offer info to the gun background test system about individuals who have severe mental disabilities that stop them from working
  • Narrowed the definition of “fugitive from justice,” which helps decide who can buy a gun. The time period now solely applies to individuals who flee their state to keep away from felony prosecution or giving testimony in a felony continuing, and are topic to felony prosecution or testimonial obligation
  • Has pushed for educators to be skilled and armed, saying in 2018, “For those who had a trainer with — who was adept at firearms, they may very effectively finish the assault in a short time” 
 

Schooling

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Except for the pressing dialog about tips on how to pursue schooling amid the pandemic, there are ongoing debates about scholar loans, public colleges, trainer salaries, and scholar security. 

Biden has pushed to higher equip public Ok-12 colleges with funding to extend trainer pay, well being and educational sources for college kids, and funding and assist to enhance general infrastructure. He has additionally campaigned for higher and extra inexpensive entry to public greater schooling. 

Listed below are the plans Biden has listed on his marketing campaign web site: 

  • Triple funding for Title I, which offers monetary help to colleges with excessive numbers or excessive percentages of youngsters from low-income households, and mandate that Ok-12 districts enhance trainer salaries 
  • Improve psychological and bodily well being professionals in Ok-12 colleges, designate federal funds to enhance Ok-12 public college buildings and enhance funding to assist disabled college students 
  • Double the utmost worth of Pell grants, and permit highschool college students to make use of them for twin enrollment programs
  • Set up common pre-Ok for three- and four-year-olds
  • Present as much as two years of tuition-free neighborhood school for college kids, together with part-time college students and DREAMers. The plan is to have a partnership with states, with the federal authorities paying 75% of the prices and states paying 25%. The federal authorities would cowl as much as 95% of the prices for Native American tribes working neighborhood faculties that serve low-income college students
  • Make public faculties and universities tuition-free for households who earn lower than $125,000 a yr
  • Modify scholar mortgage compensation insurance policies so individuals who earn lower than $25,000 a yr do not must make or accrue curiosity on undergraduate scholar mortgage funds. Others pays 5% of their discretionary revenue over $25,000 towards their loans, and their loans can be forgiven after 20 years of constructing funds by this system
  • Make investments $18 billion in grants for Traditionally Black Schools and Universities, Tribal Schools and Universities and different minority-serving establishments

In response to his campaign, Mr. Trump says he’ll: 

  • Advocate for school choice, permitting mother and father to decide on in the event that they wish to ship their children to personal constitution colleges which can be supported by taxpayer cash
  • Train “American exceptionalism”

Here is what he has completed throughout his presidency: 

  • Pushed for colleges to reopen amid the coronavirus pandemic and threatened to pull federal funding from districts that moved to distant studying
  • Suspended some student loan repayments and set mortgage rates of interest for some loans to 0% by December 31
  • Stated in September he’ll signal an government order to determine a nationwide fee, referred to as the “1776 Fee,” that promotes “patriotic education
  • Signed laws to offer greater than $250 million a yr to HBCUs
  • Revised Title IX in order that circumstances of sexual misconduct must be confirmed to be “extreme, pervasive, and objectively offensive” and that it needed to have occurred throughout an academic program or exercise to ensure that a faculty to reply, which activists say will “make it tougher for victims of sexual harassment or sexual assault to proceed their educations” 
 

Immigration

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U.S. immigration coverage has confronted elevated scrutiny below President Trump, who carried out numerous modifications affecting longtime immigrants within the U.S., latest border crossers and other people overseas trying to transfer completely. The Trump administration carried out a “zero tolerance” coverage that led to household separation, and has labored to restrict the variety of unauthorized border crossings by protecting migrants off U.S. soil all through their immigration and asylum proceedings. 

Biden has stated the present therapy of immigrants, notably those that are in search of refuge or are undocumented, is “incorrect.” 

Listed below are his plans: 

  • In his first 100 days in workplace, Biden stated he would put a moratorium on deportations to reassess the deportation course of, reinstate DACA, implement unbiased oversight of ICE, finish household separation and reunite presently separated households, reverse Mr. Trump’s restrictive asylum insurance policies, spend money on case administration initiatives for asylum-seekers, reverse the general public cost guidelines, cease utilizing Division of Protection cash to construct border boundaries, dramatically enhance admissions of refugees from 18,000 to 125,000, order a direct overview of Short-term Protected Standing applications, and meet with Central American, Mexican and Canadian leaders to create a multi-national plan to deal with the basis causes of U.S.-bound migration, together with violence and poverty
  • Push for laws that creates a pathway to U.S. citizenship for undocumented immigrants who register, are caught up on taxes and have handed a background test
  • Create a citizenship path for agricultural employees based mostly on work historical past whereas implementing labor and security guidelines
  • Improve what number of visas are awarded for family-based and employment-based immigration, and exempt latest STEM Ph.D. graduates from any caps 
  • Broaden protections for undocumented immigrants who’re victims of office violations
  • Finish for-profit immigration detention facilities
  • Suggest a four-year, $4 billion package deal supplemented by worldwide donors and regional companions to help Central America in growing safety and financial applications

Mr. Trump has tightened border restrictions and pushed for a wall alongside the U.S.-Mexico border. As acknowledged on the White Home web site, Mr. Trump goals to finish family-based migration, terminate the variety visa lottery system and create  a “merit-based” immigration system. 

Mr. Trump says he’ll: 

  • Proceed to exclude undocumented immigrants from welfare, well being care or free school tuition 
  • Proceed to crack down on cities and jurisdictions with so-called “sanctuary” insurance policies that restrict native regulation enforcement cooperation with ICE
  • Prohibit corporations from hiring immigrants for decrease pay

Here is what he has completed throughout his presidency: 

  • Enacted a journey ban on a gaggle of principally African and Asian nations in 2017, and expanded that record in 2020 
  • Oversaw a “zero tolerance” coverage that led to the separation of hundreds of migrant households on the U.S.-Mexico border
  • Rescinded the Deferred Motion for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program for unauthorized immigrants who have been dropped at the U.S. as youngsters 
  • Signed an government order barring “sanctuary” cities from receiving sure federal grants
  • Ordered the hiring of 10,000 new ICE brokers and 5,000 new Border Patrol brokers
  • Made it tougher for immigrants to acquire inexperienced playing cards and visas by broadening the elements that could possibly be used to deem them “public costs” who’re prone to depend on authorities advantages, like meals stamps and housing vouchers, whereas within the U.S. 
  • Turned again greater than 66,000 asylum-seekers to Mexico and required them to attend there for his or her U.S. court docket hearings below the “Migrant Safety Protocols” program
  • Set the refugee cap for fiscal yr 2021 at 15,000 folks, a report low. Mr. Trump has repeatedly dropped the cap from 110,000, the quantity set by former President Obama in his final yr in workplace
 

Well being care

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This yr, there was a robust emphasis on veterans’ well being care, the opioid epidemic, prescription drug costs, and insurance coverage protection.

Biden has largely been pushing to broaden the Inexpensive Care Act, which was put into place when he served below Barack Obama.

Listed below are Biden’s plans

  • Present a public well being care choice with extra inexpensive prices
  • Finish shock billing by barring well being care suppliers from charging sufferers out-of-network charges when they don’t have management over the supplier they see
  • Repeal a regulation banning Medicare from negotiating decrease drug costs
  • Set up an unbiased overview board to find out the value for brand new specialty medicine that don’t have competitors
  • Impose a tax penalty on drug producers that enhance prices of their model, biotech or generic medicine over the final inflation charge
  • Enable customers to purchase some pharmaceuticals from different nations
  • Double federal investments into neighborhood well being facilities

Mr. Trump has fought for the Inexpensive Care Act to be eradicated and changed — however he has not but introduced a particular well being care plan of his personal. He has repeatedly stated he’ll defend Individuals with pre-existing circumstances, however his administration has been preventing in opposition to these protections in court docket.

In response to his campaign web site, Mr. Trump says he’ll: 

  • Reduce prices of pharmaceuticals
  • Decrease the price of medical health insurance premiums 
  • Finish shock billing
  • Cowl pre-existing circumstances
  • Defend Social Safety and Medicare

Here is what he has completed throughout his presidency: 

  • Proposed slicing greater than $100,000 from SAMHSA, and $1 trillion from Medicaid and Inexpensive Care Act premium tax credit over 10 years
  • Proposed slicing funding for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and the Kids’s Well being Insurance coverage Program (CHIP)
  • Signed executive orders geared toward lowering insulin prices
  • Declared the opioid disaster a nationwide public well being emergency and created a fee to fight the problem
  • Created a process power to give attention to suicide prevention for veterans
  • Signed an executive order that claims it’s the administration’s coverage to cowl pre-existing circumstances, though specialists have stated the order has no authorized standing with out congressional authorization





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